ADHD (Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder) is a disorder characterized by hyperactive behavior with inability to perceive information properly because of it. Symptoms appear at a young age in 3-6 percent of children. ADHD was thought to be a psychological disorder, but after the latest researches, doctors now know about the relativity of this disorder to the activity of the D4 gene. Additionally, many children are not treated correctly because of their extreme activity. In this paper we will answer the following question: is ADHD equally prevalent across the ethnic, racial and gender groups and cultures? We will also talk about social factors that are associated with its severity. In addition, we will focus on theoretical perspective and whether ADHD is a true psychological or genetic disorder.
First of all we need to say that ADHD disorder is usually discovered in childhood, when a person cannot learn because of hyperactivity. It can continue to develop in adulthood as a chronic disorder. Those symptoms can be difficult to differentiate as there is not enough formal training in some health institutions on ADHD. After the diagnostics of such disorder, a patient needs to go through a course of therapy with medicines and psychological trainings.
Nowadays, cases of ADHD increased enormously. "Evidence of ADHD over diagnosis is obscured when findings are reported without respect to geographic location, race, gender, and age" (Gretchen, 2003). Nevertheless, American healthcare organizations are more interested in this issue than any other country. That is why, because of developed diagnostics and effective childcare, there are cases of false diagnostics because of extremely active behavior of a child. Drug treatment is not a way to reduce this problem. Drug treatment of behavior problems can lead to much more severe results than ADHD. Psychostimulants are used widely. Drugs such as Ritalin are new and affect children's health. They act like alcohol, but works like a controller for a brain that helps to concentrate. Ritalin is also compared to cocaine and amphetamine that may lead to consumption of other drugs by a patient later. (Smith, 2004). Moreover, it is not only the drug that is used to treat ADHD. "Between 1995 and 1998, antidepressant use increased by 74% among children under 18, 151% among children between 7 and 12, and 580% among children younger than 6 years of age" (Gretchen, 2003). Overuse of medications with an increased awareness of ADHD can cause consumption of drugs by children who do not have ADHD.
Secondly, there is another ways of treatment that can help to stop overusage of medicaments. Behavioral parent treatment is the best way to reduce levels of ADHD without unnecessary medication. "This approach emphasizes the use of positive reinforcement (rewarding) for responsible or adaptive behaviors" (Power, 2013). By changing the environment and using psychological training, parents help their children concentrate on their learning.
Nevertheless, such patients with true ADHD need real treatment with a complete course of medicines. Being a psychological disorder, it is also connected with domain D4 and D5 genes that, functioning actively, cause ADHD. Such genetic disorders are usually connected with autism and several other disorders (Healthcare). This theory, not being profoundly researched, gives us a reason to think that ADHD is a psychological disorder.
To sum up, we can say, that ADHD is a psychological disorder that needs a profound therapy. At the same time over-diagnostics can lead to bad results because of harsh drug treatment of young patients.